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FOCUS AREAS
The African Leadership Capacity Development Project
Perspectives on African Leadership, NEPAD, the African Union, Etc.
The African Investment Environment & Capital Flows

Emerging Transformational African Leaders

The Blair Commission for Africa: Commentaries & Critiques

The Resource Curse - Governance - Transparency - Corruption - Natural Resource Management

 

 


Africa-related Events in the Washington, D.C. Metro Area

Policy . Politics . Business . Trade . Finance . Civil Society . Arts . Culture . Entertainment


"Making Leaders". ALPN founder/director, Dr. Michael Isimbabi's letter in The Economist


African Leadership & Progress Briefs


The Mo Ibrahim African Governance Index and Leadership Prize Revisited: How Dr. Ibrahim and Other Well-Off Africans Can Best Foster Good Governance in African Countries

 

Addressing Africa’s Humiliation: 'Brain Gain'/'Brain Circulation' Diaspora Networks for African Progress

 

After the 2005 G8 and UN Summits: Independent, High-Impact Information Infrastructures and Networks for Transparency and Accountability in African Countries

 

Leadership & Governance Capacity Building in African Countries: Why and How Well-Off and Accomplished Africans, Especially "Brain Drain" Africans, Should Proactively Take Charge of Fostering African Progress


Research/Information Portal


The Mo Ibrahim African Governance Index and Leadership Prize - Commentaries & Critiques

Illicit Capital Flows, Tax Evasion, and African Development

Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Circulation, Diaspora Africans, and Capacity Building in Africa

Perspectives on African Leadership, NEPAD, the African Union, Etc.


 

African Countries & the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA)

Perspectives and insights on the MCA and its implications for African countries


The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Website

MCC in Africa    MCC Country Scorecards

 

MCA Monitor: Tracking the Millennium Challenge Account -- Center for Global Development


 

Millennium Challenge Corporation approves the first Threshold Country Plan. The Program, with Burkina Faso, is a $12.9 million program focused on improving girls' primary education completion rates. July 8, 2005

 

Millennium Challenge Corporation Signs Over $110 Million Compact with Cape Verde. July 4, 2005

 

Challenges for the new leader of the Millennium Challenge Corp. Steve Radelet and Mvemba Dizolele (June 17, 2005). Center for Global Development.

 

The New Global Governance Indicators and the Possible Impact on MCA Qualification (May 17, 2005). Center for Global Development.

 

MCA Monitor: What’s Next for the Millennium Challenge Account? Center for Global Development. Panel discussion on the future of the Millennium Challenge Account. May 3, 2005.


Hearing: Millennium Challenge Account: Does the Program Match the Vision?. U.S. House of Representatives-Committee on International Relations. April 27, 2005. Testimony Transcripts: Hearing and Markup Notice, The Honorable Henry J. Hyde, The Honorable Paul V. Applegarth, Mr. Steven Radelet, David B. Gootnick, M.D., Mr. Conor Walsh. View Webcast Video


Hearing: The Millennium Challenge Corporation's Global Impact
. Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
April 26, 2005. Transcripts: Senator Lugar's Opening Statement; The Honorable Paul V. Applegarth, Mr. David B. Gootnick

 

Summaries of Hearings - MCA Monitor/Center for Global Development


Leadership, Results Gets Madagascar $110 Million. Center for Global Development. April 27, 2005

Balancing "country ownership" and MCA priorities. Center for Global Development. April 18, 2005

 

Big Improvements, Small Costs (MCA Funding). Brett D. Schaefer. The Heritage Foundation. April 26, 2005

 

Helping those who help themselves (Madagascar & MCA). Helle Dale. Heritage Foundation. 21 April 2005

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: Spur to Democracy? The MCA Opens the Door to a Debate on Democracy and Governance Conditionality for Assistance. NGOs in Developing Countries Need to Walk Through That Door. Elizabeth Spiro Clark. Foreign Service Journal, April 2005.

 

Bush Downscales Millennium Challenge Funds in Budget (Audio). All Things Considered (National Public Radio), February 10, 2005. Early in his first term, President Bush made a commitment to spend $5 billion a year in helping the poorest nations of the world out of poverty. His Millennium Challenge Account, though, has not spent a penny yet. And the president's latest budget proposal calls for $3 billion, not the $5 billion he promised.

 

America's Promises. Editorial. New York Times. January 28, 2005. "Editorial says Pres Bush pledged billions of dollars in aid to poor countries when he created Millennium Challenge Account three years ago, and for third straight year he has committed much less than he promised; says Republican Congress can be expected to cut Bush's diluted 2006 pledge even further; says Bush and Congress have chosen to spend billions on tax cuts for wealthy instead of keeping America's promises..."

Mr. Bush's Challenge. Washington Post. Editorial. November 12, 2004

The President's Millennium Challenge. New York Times. Editorial. November 11, 2004


 

The Millennium Challenge Account: Official Information / Documents


 

Testimony to the House Committee on International Relations. 27 April 2005. Paul V. Applegarth - CEO, Millennium Challenge Corporation.

 

Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 26 April 2005. Paul V. Applegarth - CEO, Millennium Challenge Corporation

Millennium Challenge Corporation Making "Substantial Progress. Applegarth expects four more countries to be ready to sign by summer

 

Madagascar MCA Compact (First Ever MCA Compact Signed). 18 April 2005. Signing Ceremony: Video; Remarks Transcript. Panel Discussion: Video; Transcript

 

Testimony to the House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee. Paul V. Applegarth, CEO, Millennium Challenge Corporation. 13 April 2005

Bush Official Urges Full Funding of Millennium Challenge Budget

 

Millennium Challenge Account: Already Paying Dividends. MCC. April 2005
 

MCC Public Outreach Meeting - 16 March 2005 - Video; Transcript

 

Millennium Challenge Corporation Releases Interim Environmental Guidelines for Public Comment. 04 March 2005

 

MCC CEO Paul Applegarth’s Presentation To African Ambassadors.16 February 2005

MCC Launches Search for New Natural Resources Indicator at Kick Off Event Chaired by Governor Whitman. 15 February 2005

Eligible, Threshold Countries Named - Selection Discussed at Nov. 10 Public Meeting

Millennium Challenge Corporation - Transcript of Public Outreach Meeting - 10 November 2004.

Webcast of November 10 MCC Public Meeting

White House - MCA Eligible Countries for FY05

Remarks by Secretary Powell at the MCC Reception. November 10, 2004

Millennium Challenge Corporation Names Fiscal Year 2005 Eligible Countries. Press Release. November 8, 2004

 

Hearing Before The Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. October 5, 2004.

Senator Lugar's Opening Statement

Testimony By Paul V. Applegarth, Chief Executive Officer, Millennium Challenge Corporation

CEO Paul Applegarth Reports to Senate on Millennium Challenge Corporation’s Progress. 05 October 2004

MCC Names Eligible Threshold Countries. 30 September 2004. Millennium Challenge Corporation Names Seven Countries Eligible for Threshold Program.

Statement by the White House Press Secretary. 30 September 2004

 

View Web cast of 24 Sept 2004 Public Outreach Meeting

 

Statement by the President. President George W. Bush. 16 September 2004


The Millennium Challenge Corporation Announces FY05 Country Selection Process. 26 August 2004.

 

Millennium Challenge Account - Country Rankings Data

 

Webcast -- MCA Public Meeting -- July 27, 2004. Individuals representing numerous federal agencies, foreign embassies, nongovernmental organizations, economic and financial institutions, universities and members of the nonprofit community gathered in Washington, D.C., to discuss the most recent developments regarding the MCC. This included an overview of the consultative process and plans for due diligence.

The Millennium Challenge Corporation Identifies Candidate Countries for FY05. Press Release. July 20, 2004

MCA Candidate Countries for FY2005

Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting Open Session - July 20, 2004 - Transcript

Welcome Message from The Honorable Colin L. Powell, Chairman of the Board of The Millennium Challenge Corporation. Colin L. Powell. USAID.

 

Remarks By Paul V. Applegarth, Chief Executive Officer, Millennium Challenge Corporation - World Bank Conference on Scaling Up Poverty Reduction. 27 May 2004

 

Hearing: Implementation of the Millennium Challenge Act. Committee on International Relations, US House of Representatives. 19 May 2004

Opening Statement of Committee Chairman Henry J. Hyde

 

Testimony By Paul V. Applegarth, Chief Executive Officer, Millennium Challenge Corporation

 

Remarks by President Bush at Ceremony Celebrating Countries Selected for the Millennium Challenge Account. 10 May 2004

 

New MCC Aid Chief says Development Aid to Support Policy Reforms. 07 May 2004

 

Press Release: The Millennium Challenge Corporation Names MCA Eligible Countries. 06 May 2004. The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)

 

The Launching of the Millennium Challenge Account. Alan P. Larson, Under Secretary for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs, Department of State. Foreign Press Center Briefing. Washington, DC. February 3, 2004

 

Various MCC/MCA Documents (Fact Sheets; Congressional Testimonies; Meetings; Legislation; Bylaws; Etc.)

Speeches & Testimony

MCC Operations / Country Selection: Eligibility Criteria; Methodology; Datasets; Data Sources; Etc.


 

Africa and the Millennium Challenge Account: Commentaries / Critiques / Analyses

 

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May 2003 commentary on the MCA in relation to Africa by Mr. Paul Applegarth, prior to becoming CEO of the MCC in May 2004 (he was previously chief operating officer of the Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund and the founding managing director of Emerging Africa Advisers):

 

A Commentary on the Millennium Challenge Account. May 2003. Paul V. Applegarth. CSIS Africa Notes. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

 

Mr. Applegarth also authored:

Capital Market and Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. March 2004. A Report of the Africa Policy Advisory Panel, Center for Strategic and International Studies.

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Remarks by Secretary Powell at the MCC Ambassadorial Reception
Secretary Colin L. Powell - Chairman, MCC Board of Directors

CEO Applegarth’s Remarks at MCC Ambassadorial Reception (Prepared)
Paul V. Applegarth - CEO, Millennium Challenge Corporation,
10 November 2004

Millennium Challenge Account Teleconference - Transcript. Center On Budget and Policy Priorities & Center for Global Development. November 9, 2004.

Ghana Organizes Validation Workshop on MCA. Ghanaweb.com. October 28, 2004.

2004 MCA Threshold Program: A Comment on Country Selection by Steve Radelet, Sarah Lucas and Rikhil Bhavnani (October 27, 2004)

Round Two of the MCA: Which Countries are Most Likely to Qualify by Steve Radelet and Rikhil Bhavnani (October 12, 2004)

 

A note on the MCC selection process for 2005. Steve Radelet. Center for Global Development. September 23 2004.
 

An MCA Scorecard: Who Qualified, Who Did Not, and the MCC Board’s Use of Discretion. 28 May 2004. Sarah Lucas and Steve Radelet. Center for Global Development.


U.S. Aid Agency to Help Seven Countries Qualify for Targeted Aid. 05 October 2004. U.S. Dept of State. Countries have shown commitment to reforms, MCC's Applegarth says

 

Tanzania joins Millennium Challenge Account qualifiers. IPP Media. 05 Oct 2004

 

Seven Potential Millennium Challenge Account Qualifiers Announced. 01 October 2004. U.S. Dept of State. United States to help countries meet criteria but success not guaranteed

 

Foreign Aid in Peril. Editorial. The Washington Post. 15 September 2004. More than one would have predicted four years ago, the Bush administration has promoted help for developing countries. Having suggested during his campaign that Africa was not a priority, President Bush greatly expanded programs to help poor countries cope with AIDS, and he promised a 50 percent jump in other foreign assistance. However, that second achievement is in danger of being undermined. In a Senate markup yesterday, only $1.12 billion was allocated to Mr. Bush's new aid initiative [the MCA], less than half of what he requested.

 

Reinventing US Foreign Aid at Millennium Challenge Corp. Glenn Kessler. Washington Post. August 10, 2004

 

Save the Millennium Challenge!. DATA (Debt-AIDS-Trade-Africa). [The] cut to the Millennium Challenge will have severe consequences for the fight to support democracies, get children into school and clean water into villages in the poorest countries.

 

House Cuts President's Global Poverty Fight. Press Release. DATA (Debt-AIDS-Trade-Africa). July 16, 2004.

 

How Significant are the Administration's Proposed Increases in Foreign Development Aid?. In a joint study between the Center for Global Development and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Nancy Birdsall, Isaac Shapiro and Brian Deese take a closer look at the real significance of President Bush's attempts to increase foreign aid through the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) and increased funding to fight HIV/AIDS.

 

July 2004 E-news Bulletin: The Millennium Challenge Account. Africa Liaison Program Initiative, InterAction, July 2004.

 

U.S. in the World: Talking Global Issues with Americans - A Practical Guide. Center for Global Development Forum. July 2004.

 

Economic Freedom and the Millennium Challenge Account. John B. Taylor, Under Secretary for International Affairs, U.S. Department of the Treasury. Speech at Conference on Economic Freedom of the World: 2004 Report. Cato Institute, Washington, DC. July 15, 2004

 

Launching the Millennium Challenge Account in Africa. John B. Taylor, Under Secretary for International Affairs, U.S. Department of the Treasury, at the Institute of Economic Affairs, Accra, Ghana. May 31, 2004.

 

AIDS, MCA and Other Core Accounts. 25 May 2004. DATA (Debt-AIDS-Trade-Africa). A summary of key financing requests from within the President's Foreign Operations request of $21.3 billion.

 

Developing Africa's economy: Doing the sums on Africa. Jeffrey Sachs. The Economist. 20 May 2004.

 

Eight African Nations Eligible For Millennium Challenge Account Assistance. 07 May  2004. Charles Cobb Jr. and Reed Kramer. allAfrica.com

 

16 Nations Chosen for New Aid Program. 07 May 2004. Paul Blustein. The Washington Post

 

Freedom House Applauds U.S. Decision to Increase Aid to Poor Democracies. 06 May 2004. Freedom House.

 

'We Expect to Qualify for MCA’, Ghana Finance Minister Says. Reed Kramer. allAfrica.com. April 21, 2004.


InterAction: Materials on the MCA and Links to Several Other MCA Documents and Resources

Public Comment on MCA Eligibility Criteria and Methodology. InterAction. March 2004

Africa and the MCA. InterAction. June 2003


 

DATA (Debt-AIDS-Trade-Africa) on Millennium Challenge Announcement. 06 May 2004. DATA (Debt-AIDS-Trade-Africa)

 

Other DATA documents:

 

Meeting the Millennium Challenge. 12 May 2004. Funding needs of the 16 countries selected by the Millennium Challenge to receive funding.

 

Funding the Millennium Challenge06 May 2004.

 

US Announces First 16 Countries to Receive Millennium Challenge Funding. 06 May 2004.

 

Meeting the Millennium Challenge. 15 April 2004.

 

The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA): Expanding the Benefits. May 2003 (updated August 2003).
 

The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA): Initial Reactions. May 2003 (updated August 2003)

 

The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA): Limiting Assistance to Low Income Countries. May 2003 (updated August 2003)

 


 

Commentary: Qualifying for the MCA: An Update. 22 April 2004. Steve Radelet. Center for Global Development (CGD).

 

Other CGD documents:

 

A Comment on the Millennium Challenge Account Selection Process. March 9, 2004. Steve Radelet, Sarah Lucas, and Rikhil Bhavnani. Center for Global Development.

 

Testimony Before the House International Relations Committee on the MCA. Steve Radelet. February 26, 2004.

 

Bush and Foreign Aid. Steve Radelet. Foreign Affairs, September/October 2003

 

Next Steps For U.S. Africa Policy: A Debrief of President Bush's Trip To Africa (Unedited Transcript Prepared From A Tape Recording). 18 July 2003. Salih Booker, Patrick Cronin, Jendayi Frazer, Steven Radelet, Todd Moss. Center for Global Development

 

Challenging Foreign Aid: A Policymaker's Guide to the Millennium Challenge Account. Steve Radelet. May 2003. Center for Global Development

 

Which Countries Are Most Likely to Qualify for the MCA? An Update. May 30, 2003. Steve Radelet. Center for Global Development.

 

Will the Millennium Challenge Account Be Different? Steve Radelet. The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2003.

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: Soft Power or Collateral Damage?  April 2003. Steven Radelet and Sheila Herrling. Center for Global Development Brief.

The Millennium Challenge Account: How Much Is Too Much, How Long Is Long Enough? February 2003. Michael Clemens and Steven Radelet. Center For Global Development Working Paper Number 23

A Comment on the MCA Proposals. January 9, 2003. Nicolas van de Walle. Center for Global Development/Michigan State University.

More MCA Documents - Center for Global Development

 


OSI Issues Public Comment on U.S. Millennium Challenge Account Criteria. March 23, 2004. Open Society Institute-Washington, DC.

 

Other OSI documents:

 

The Proposed Millennium Challenge Account Selection Process: A Comment by the Open Society Institute. March 23, 2004. Open Society Institute-Washington, DC

 

Linking the Community of Democracies with Millenium Challenge Accounts - A Case of Win-Win. Thomas I. Palley. OSI Globalization Reform Project. April 2, 2003

 

The Millennium Challenge Accounts: Elevating the Significance of Democracy as a Qualifying Criterion. Thomas I. Palley. OSI Globalization Reform Project. February 2003.

 

Forging a Bipartisan Approach to the MCA Initiative. February 18, 2003. Open Society Institute (OSI).

 


 MCA: Rewarding Open Markets. February 25, 2004. Sara J. Fitzgerald and Anthony B. Kim. The Heritage Foundation. Executive Memorandum #915

 

Other Heritage Foundation documents:

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: Rewarding Open Markets. Sara J. Fitzgerald and Anthony Kim. February 10, 2004. WebMemo #423

 

How to Improve the Bush Administration’s Millennium Challenge Account. Brett D. Schaefer and Paolo Pasicolan. February 28, 2003 (Backgrounder #1629).

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: Linking Aid with Economic Freedom. Paolo Pasicolan and Sara J. Fitzgerald. October 18, 2002. The Heritage Foundation, Backgrounder #1602.

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: An Opportunity to Advance Development in Poor Nations.Brett D. Schaefer. July 12, 2002. Heritage Foundation. Heritage Lecture #753.

 

Three Keys to MCA Success. Sara J. Fitzgerald. WebMemo #354

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: Creating Effective Development Assistance. Paolo Pasicolan. Heritage Foundation, 2002.

 

America's International Development Agenda. Brett D. Schaefer and Aaron Schavey. Heritage Foundation, May 6, 2002.

 


Millennium Challenge Account. Andrew S. Natsios. Testimony by the administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Washington, D.C., March 4, 2003.

 

Foreign Aid and the National Interest.  Andrew Natsios and Larry Diamond. Hoover Digest, Winter 2004. How should the United States approach foreign aid? Andrew Natsios and Hoover fellow Larry Diamond recommend tough love.

 

Challenging Orthodoxy: Changing Perspectives on Development. Andrew S. Natsios. Remarks by the administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development. London, October 21, 2002.

 


Making the Millennium Challenge Account Work for Africa. Lael Brainard & Allison Driscoll. September 2003. Brookings Institution

 

The Millennium Challenge Account and Foreign Assistance: Transformation or More Confusion? Spring 2003. Lael Brainard. Brookings Review

 

The Other War: Global Poverty and the Millennium Challenge Account. 2003. Lael Brainard, Carol Graham, Nigel Purvis, Steven Radelet, and Gayle Smith. Brookings Institution/Center for Global Development. The Journal of Development Studies, October 2003

 

Assessing the Millennium Challenge Corporation. March 02, 2003. Panel Discussion. The Woodrow Wilson Center. Lael Brainard, Nigel Purvis, Steven Radelet, John Sewell.

 


Keeping our promise to Africa. Christine Vladimiroff. National Catholic Reporter. October 3, 2003.  President Bush proposed a historic foreign aid initiative to Africa, but Congress now threatens to make that pledge empty rhetoric.

 

NEPAD-MCA on Collision Course? (US - Africa Business Summit). July 2003. Tom Nevin. African Business

 

Millennium Challenge Corporation -- The Role of Agriculture and Rural Development. E. Anthony Wayne, Assistant Secretary for Economic and Business Affairs.
Remarks to the 39th Annual Meeting of the Association for International and Rural Development. June 2, 2003

 

Aid for the Enterprising (MCA). Colin L. Powell. The Washington Post. June 10, 2003.

Are We Our Brothers' Keepers? : The challenges to providing education in low- income countries are daunting, but wealthy nations are responsible to reach out to the less fortunate. June 2003. Stephen P. Heyneman. World and I

America and Africa. Salih Booker, William Minter, and Ann-Louise Colgan. Africa Action. Current History, May 2003.

 

A Commentary on the Millennium Challenge Account. May 2003. Paul V. Applegarth. CSIS Africa Notes. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC.

 

A Better Way to Fight Global Poverty – Broadening the Millennium Challenge Account. Gene Sperling and Tom Hart. Foreign Affairs, March-April 2003.

 

Millennium Challenge Account. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, February 2003

Millennium Challenge Account. Bread for the World Institute.

The MCA and Africa. Bread for the World.

How U.S. Charities View President Bush's New Development Assistance Proposal. March 6, 2003. Charles  MacCormack. Testimony by the president and CEO of Save the Children before the House International Relations Committee.

 

The Millennium Challenge Account: A New Way to Aid. March 4, 2003. Mary McClymont. Testimony by the president and CEO of InterAction before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

 

Millennium Challenge Account. John B. Taylor. Testimony by the Under Secretary of Treasury for International Affairs before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Washington, D.C., March 4, 2003.

 

The Millennium Challenge Account. March 4, 2003. Alan Larson. Statement by the Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business and Agriculture Affairs before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

 

Alexey Semyonov, The Millennium Challenge Account: A New Way to Conceive of Foreign Aid?, The National Interest.

 

  • Millenium Challenge Account: Africa, Americans & the World.

     

  • Real Relief for the World's Poor: The Millennium Challenge Corporation. Adam Lerrick. Gailliot Center for Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University, February 2003.

     

    The Millennium Challenge Account: Congressional Consideration of a New Foreign Aid Initiative. Larry Nowels. Congressional Research Service, January 3, 2003.

     

    The Devil is in the Details: From the Millennium Challenge Account to the Millennium Challenge Corporation. 12 December 2002. Carol Lancaster. Center for Global Development.
     

    Where to Put the Millennium Challenge Account? 15 October 2002. Carol Lancaster
     

    Business Recommendations for Administering the Millennium Challenge Account. November 18, 2002. Business Council for International Understanding (BCIU), New York.

     

    Corporate Welfare with a Human Face? Grant-Giving and the New Paradigm for Delivery of Basic Services. (MCA & Grant-Giving). Nancy Alexander & Tim Kessler. Citizens’ Network on Essential Services (CNES). September 2002

     

    Millennium Challenge Account: A Proposed Conceptual Approach for Eligibility. August 13, 2002. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.

     

    The Right Way to Aid Africa. Joaquim Chissano, John Agyekum Kufuor, and Peter McPherson. The Wall Street Journal. July 05, 2002

     

    Still Not Enough Aid. Isaac Shapiro and David Weiner. Challenge, July 1, 2002.

     

    Improving Development Effectiveness: Recommendations for the Millennium Challenge Account. June 24, 2002. Catholic Relief Services (CRS).

  • The Millennium Challenge Account: Opportunities and Challenges for the Future of Foreign Aid. Catholic Relief Services (CRS).
  • Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) - Frequently Asked Questions. Catholic Relief Services

     

    The Millennium Challenge Account: A Policy Paper from InterAction. May 24, 2002. Nancy A. Aossey and Mary E. McClymont. InterAction.

     

    How Does the Proposed Level of Foreign Economic Aid Under the Bush Budget Compare with Historical Levels? And What Would Be the Effects of Bush's New "Millennium Challenge Account"? March 20, 2002. Isaac Shapiro and Nancy Birdsall. Center for Global Development and Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.

     

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